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How to return multiple values from a function in oracle pl/sql ? (without using out parameter)
 
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This video demonstrates how a function can return multiple values to the calling environment, but without using multiple out parameters, the video shows an example on how we can create a object, a nested table based on the object and then returning the nested table type from the function.
Views: 23451 Kishan Mashru
Oracle SQL Tutorial : How to return multiple values from the Function in Oracle PL/SQL
 
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Oracle SQL Tutorial Oracle tutorial : How to return multiple values from the Function in Oracle PLSQL pl sql function This video tutorial tell you How to return multiple rows from the Function in Oracle PLSQL Using the TYPE object you can able return multiple rows from the function.Here object concept of oracle is used. Subscribe on youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCpiyAesWNYOXSz5GPq8lbkA For more tutorial please visit #techquerypond https://techquerypond.wordpress.com https://twitter.com/techquerypond
Views: 8028 Tech Query Pond
Getting Started with PL/SQL Table Functions 2. Returning Multiple Columns
 
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In this second module in the series, Steven Feuerstein explores the code you need to write when you want your table function to return an array with multiple columns. Best taken as part of the Oracle Dev Gym PL/SQL Table Functions class: https://devgym.oracle.com/pls/apex/dg/class/pl-sql-table-functions.html ======================================== Practically Perfect PL/SQL with Steven Feuerstein Copyright © 2018 Oracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Other names may be registered trademarks of their respective owners. Oracle disclaims any warranties or representations as to the accuracy or completeness of this recording, demonstration, and/or written materials (the “Materials”). The Materials are provided “as is” without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including without limitation warranties or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement.
Return multiple values from function in PLSQL
 
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To return multiple value from a function table type objects are used.
Views: 6215 Abhaya Kumar Behera
Oracle DECODE Function
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-decode-function/ The Oracle DECODE function lets you perform IF-THEN-ELSE functionality in your queries. It’s similar to a CASE statement. The syntax of the DECODE function is: DECODE ( expression, search, result [, search, result]... [,default] ) The parameters of the Oracle DECODE function are: - expression (mandatory): This is the value to compare. - search (mandatory): This is the value to compare against the expression. - result (mandatory): This is the return value if the search value matches the expression value. There can be multiple combinations of search and result values, and the result value is attached to the previous search value. - default (optional): If none of the search values match, then this value is returned. If this is not provided, the DECODE function will return NULL if no matches are found. If you compare this to an IF-THEN-ELSE statement, it would look like this: IF (expression = search) THEN result [ELSE IF (expression = search) THEN result] ELSE default END IF The parameters can be one of many different data types, and the return type is calculated from them. Earlier I mentioned it’s similar to CASE. So why would you use one and not the other? - DECODE is an older function, and CASE was introduced as a replacement for DECODE. - CASE offers more flexibility then DECODE - CASE is also easier to read and debug (in my opinion) The performance of these functions is the same, so if you’re considering using DECODE, I would suggest using CASE instead. For more information about the Oracle DECODE function, including all of the SQL shown in this video and the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-decode-function/
Views: 1079 Database Star
Function with return only
 
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A simple function that returns a value but has no parameters
Views: 221 David Gaitros
Lead and Lag functions in SQL Server 2012
 
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In this video we will discuss about Lead and Lag functions. Lead and Lag functions Introduced in SQL Server 2012 Lead function is used to access subsequent row data along with current row data Lag function is used to access previous row data along with current row data ORDER BY clause is required PARTITION BY clause is optional Syntax LEAD(Column_Name, Offset, Default_Value) OVER (ORDER BY Col1, Col2, ...) LAG(Column_Name, Offset, Default_Value) OVER (ORDER BY Col1, Col2, ...) Offset - Number of rows to lead or lag. Default_Value - The default value to return if the number of rows to lead or lag goes beyond first row or last row in a table or partition. If default value is not specified NULL is returned. We will use the following Employees table for the examples in this video SQL Script to create the Employees table Create Table Employees ( Id int primary key, Name nvarchar(50), Gender nvarchar(10), Salary int ) Go Insert Into Employees Values (1, 'Mark', 'Male', 1000) Insert Into Employees Values (2, 'John', 'Male', 2000) Insert Into Employees Values (3, 'Pam', 'Female', 3000) Insert Into Employees Values (4, 'Sara', 'Female', 4000) Insert Into Employees Values (5, 'Todd', 'Male', 5000) Insert Into Employees Values (6, 'Mary', 'Female', 6000) Insert Into Employees Values (7, 'Ben', 'Male', 7000) Insert Into Employees Values (8, 'Jodi', 'Female', 8000) Insert Into Employees Values (9, 'Tom', 'Male', 9000) Insert Into Employees Values (10, 'Ron', 'Male', 9500) Go Lead and Lag functions example WITHOUT partitions : This example Leads 2 rows and Lags 1 row from the current row. When you are on the first row, LEAD(Salary, 2, -1) allows you to move forward 2 rows and retrieve the salary from the 3rd row. When you are on the first row, LAG(Salary, 1, -1) allows us to move backward 1 row. Since there no rows beyond row 1, Lag function in this case returns the default value -1. When you are on the last row, LEAD(Salary, 2, -1) allows you to move forward 2 rows. Since there no rows beyond the last row 1, Lead function in this case returns the default value -1. When you are on the last row, LAG(Salary, 1, -1) allows us to move backward 1 row and retrieve the salary from the previous row. SELECT Name, Gender, Salary, LEAD(Salary, 2, -1) OVER (ORDER BY Salary) AS Lead_2, LAG(Salary, 1, -1) OVER (ORDER BY Salary) AS Lag_1 FROM Employees Lead and Lag functions example WITH partitions : Notice that in this example, Lead and Lag functions return default value if the number of rows to lead or lag goes beyond first row or last row in the partition. SELECT Name, Gender, Salary, LEAD(Salary, 2, -1) OVER (PARTITION By Gender ORDER BY Salary) AS Lead_2, LAG(Salary, 1, -1) OVER (PARTITION By Gender ORDER BY Salary) AS Lag_1 FROM Employees Text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/10/lead-and-lag-functions-in-sql-server.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/10/lead-and-lag-functions-in-sql-server_5.html All SQL Server Text Articles http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/free-sql-server-video-tutorials-for.html All SQL Server Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/sql-server.html All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in English https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?view=1&sort=dd All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in Arabic https://www.youtube.com/c/KudvenkatArabic/playlists
Views: 56379 kudvenkat
LAST VALUE function in SQL Server
 
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last_value function in sql server 2008 sql server last_value function returns incorrect data sql server last_value function example sql server last_value function with partition example LAST_VALUE function in SQL Server In this video we will discuss LAST_VALUE function in SQL Server. LAST_VALUE function Introduced in SQL Server 2012 Retrieves the last value from the specified column ORDER BY clause is required PARTITION BY clause is optional ROWS or RANGE clause is optional, but for it to work correctly you may have to explicitly specify a value Syntax : LAST_VALUE(Column_Name) OVER (ORDER BY Col1, Col2, ...) LAST_VALUE function not working as expected : In the following example, LAST_VALUE function does not return the name of the highest paid employee. This is because we have not specified an explicit value for ROWS or RANGE clause. As a result it is using it's default value RANGE BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW. SELECT Name, Gender, Salary, LAST_VALUE(Name) OVER (ORDER BY Salary) AS LastValue FROM Employees LAST_VALUE function working as expected : In the following example, LAST_VALUE function returns the name of the highest paid employee as expected. Notice we have set an explicit value for ROWS or RANGE clause to ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING This tells the LAST_VALUE function that it's window starts at the first row and ends at the last row in the result set. SELECT Name, Gender, Salary, LAST_VALUE(Name) OVER (ORDER BY Salary ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING) AS LastValue FROM Employees LAST_VALUE function example with partitions : In the following example, LAST_VALUE function returns the name of the highest paid employee from the respective partition. SELECT Name, Gender, Salary, LAST_VALUE(Name) OVER (PARTITION BY Gender ORDER BY Salary ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING) AS LastValue FROM Employees Text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/10/lastvalue-function-in-sql-server.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/10/lastvalue-function-in-sql-server_9.html All SQL Server Text Articles http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/free-sql-server-video-tutorials-for.html All SQL Server Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/sql-server.html Full SQL Server Course https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4cyC4G0M1RQ_Rm52cQ4CcOJ_T_HXeMB4 All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in English https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?view=1&sort=dd All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in Arabic https://www.youtube.com/c/KudvenkatArabic/playlists
Views: 37098 kudvenkat
Oracle Function Result Cache | Steven Feuerstein
 
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Returning for his seventh 2 Minute Tech Tip, Oracle architect and "Oracle PL/SQL Programming 6e" author Steven Feuerstein delivers the details on the Function Result Cache, a feature introduced in Oracle Database 11g that can add a performance boost to your applications.
Views: 1087 ArchBeat Archive
How to "return more than one value" from any function.
 
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This is the Concept of call by reference . According to this concept if there would be any change in formal arguments then the corresponding change will be reflected in Actual arguments . This video contain a program : To calculate and return area and rectangle from the function. Call by vale and call by reference :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b7g4KQs7DWk Concept of pointers : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VT3Z0JKprOU
Views: 4117 Prakash Sharma
FUNCTIONS IN ORACLE PL/SQL (basic to advance examples)
 
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This video is to understand how to create an oracle pl/sql function, the video demonstrates the use of in, out and in out parameter types. The video also explains on how to call a function from a pl/sql block and from a select statement.
Views: 4913 Kishan Mashru
PL/SQL tutorial 38: Introduction to PL/SQL functions in Oracle Database
 
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PL/SQL tutorial for beginners Introduction to PL/SQL functions in Oracle Database by Manish Sharma ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ►►►LINKS◄◄◄ Blog : http://bit.ly/introduction-to-plsql-function Previous Tutorial ► Blocks in Oracle Database https://youtu.be/rbarR4_gaH8 ► ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Let's Get Free Uber Cab◄◄◄ Use Referral Code UberRebellionRider and get $20 free for your first ride. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the 1st one to see my videos! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ►►►Find me on Social Media◄◄◄ Follow What I am up to as it happens on https://twitter.com/rebellionrider https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj http://instagram.com/rebellionrider https://plus.google.com/+Rebellionrider http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ http://rebellionrider.tumblr.com/ http://www.pinterest.com/rebellionrider/ ___Facebook Official Page___ https://www.facebook.com/RebellionRider.official/ You can also Email me at for E-mail address please check About section Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ♥ I LOVE ALL, MY VIEWERS AND SUBSCRIBERS
Views: 55178 Manish Sharma
SQL Null or Empty   How to Check for Null or Empty Column in SQL Server   SQL Training Online
 
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http://www.sqltrainingonline.com SQL Null or Empty - How to Check for Null or Empty Column in SQL Server - SQL Training Online You can download the sample table script at http://www.sqltrainingonline.com/how-to-filter-for-sql-null-or-empty-string/. In this video, I show you how to filter for a SQL null or empty string. It can be difficult to filter a null because you can't simply compare with an equal sign. You have to use a special IS NULL clause to make the filter work. I also show you how to combine both the SQL Null and Empty String together in a special trick with the isnull SQL Server function. I use SQL Server 2012 to demonstrate the technique. Let me know what you think by commenting or sharing on twitter, facebook, google+, etc. If you enjoy the video, please give it a like, comment, or subscribe to my channel. You can visit me at any of the following: SQL Training Online: http://www.sqltrainingonline.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/sql_by_joey Google+: https://plus.google.com/#100925239624117719658/posts LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/joeyblue Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/sqltrainingonline
Views: 20477 Joey Blue
PL/SQL:NVL/NVL2/Coalesce function
 
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In this tutorial, you'll learn the difference between NVL,NVL2 &Coalesce functions PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 5379 radhikaravikumar
Procedures in Oracle PL/SQL
 
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This is a video tutorial on creating procedures, with input parameters types such as IN , OUT and IN OUT . Also the video demonstrates the way we can use default value with any parameter, and at the end the video demonstrates exception handling in PL/SQL procedures
Views: 9279 Kishan Mashru
CTS interview questions on Oracle SQL and PLSQL
 
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Here are the CTS interview questions on SQL and PLSQL. PL/SQL: What are the activities are you doing daily in your project? Tell me ratio's of sql, pl/sql & Unix? Diff b/w primary key & unique key + not null? What is the use of views? If table dropped, then what happen view? What is index? types of indexes? Which functions are not supported to index? What is save point? What is ora-1555? What are the data types available in pl/sql, not in sql? What is the main use of %type,%rowtype? What is cursor? Types of cursors? Diff b/w explicit cursor & for loop cursor? What is exception? Types of exceptions? What is raise_application_error? How many LONG columns are allowed in a table? What cursor type do you use to retrieve multiple record sets? What is normalization ? What is an index and types of indexes. How many number of indexes can be used per table ? how can we find the select statement is indexed or not? What are wait events. Describe the wait event tables. How do u count no of rows in a table? When do we create bitmap indexes sql query to get zero records from a table having n no of records function can return multiple value? how give give sample coding Difference between NVL, NVL2 and NULLIF Name Salary Abc 50000 Abc 50000 xyz 20000, find the max salary using aggregate function? What are the Diff B/W Cursor and REF Cursor What is pragma_exception_init? Diff b/w triggers & procedures? Can you call procedure in select statement? Restrictions in functions? What is the use of packages? How to drop package body only? Can use pragma_autonamous_tranctions in packages? What is bulk collect? What is nullif()? What is mutating error?  What are the module's , you are working Which will fire default first statement level or row level trigger? What is bulk collect? And any restrictions in bulk collect? What is the use of limit clause in bulk collect? How to debug your code? How to trace error handling? How to find which line error was raised? What are the methods there in save exceptions? What is functional based index? Write syntax? In my next video i will be providing you the answers for each on of this questions. For HCL interview question : https://youtu.be/Pf0lRerwF5U For Global Analytics interview questions : https://youtu.be/joRTF8ZhVwg Please subscribe to my channel here for more videos on recent interview questions of MNC companies. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCofhGV_j_4cVGa9R08MsuXQ thanks to my subscribers !!
Views: 16470 Oracle PL/SQL
Get Started with Table Functions Module 1: Overview and Fundamentals
 
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This video is part of the Oracle Dev Gym class "Getting Started with Table Functions". This module offers an overview of table functions: what they are, how they work, and a simple example of a table function that returns a collection of scalar values. You can watch this video independent of the class, but then you miss out on the videos and quizzes. So we encourage you to go to the page below and register for the class! https://devgym.oracle.com/pls/apex/dg/class/getting-started-with-pl-sql-table-functions.html ======================================== Practically Perfect PL/SQL with Steven Feuerstein Copyright © 2018 Oracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Other names may be registered trademarks of their respective owners. Oracle disclaims any warranties or representations as to the accuracy or completeness of this recording, demonstration, and/or written materials (the “Materials”). The Materials are provided “as is” without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including without limitation warranties or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement.
Stored procedure output parameters or return values   Part 20
 
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In this video we will 1. Understand what are stored procedure return values 2. Difference between stored procedure return values and output parameters 3. When to use output parameters over return values Text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2012/08/stored-procedure-output-parameters-or.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2013/08/part-20-stored-procedure-output.html All SQL Server Text Articles http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/free-sql-server-video-tutorials-for.html All SQL Server Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/sql-server.html All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in English https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?view=1&sort=dd All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in Arabic https://www.youtube.com/c/KudvenkatArabic/playlists
Views: 298449 kudvenkat
Rank and Dense Rank in SQL Server
 
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rank and dense_rank example difference between rank and dense_rank with example rank vs dense_rank in sql server 2008 sql server difference between rank and dense_rank In this video we will discuss Rank and Dense_Rank functions in SQL Server Rank and Dense_Rank functions Introduced in SQL Server 2005 Returns a rank starting at 1 based on the ordering of rows imposed by the ORDER BY clause ORDER BY clause is required PARTITION BY clause is optional When the data is partitioned, rank is reset to 1 when the partition changes Difference between Rank and Dense_Rank functions Rank function skips ranking(s) if there is a tie where as Dense_Rank will not. For example : If you have 2 rows at rank 1 and you have 5 rows in total. RANK() returns - 1, 1, 3, 4, 5 DENSE_RANK returns - 1, 1, 2, 3, 4 Syntax : RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Col1, Col2, ...) DENSE_RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Col1, Col2, ...) RANK() and DENSE_RANK() functions without PARTITION BY clause : In this example, data is not partitioned, so RANK() function provides a consecutive numbering except when there is a tie. Rank 2 is skipped as there are 2 rows at rank 1. The third row gets rank 3. DENSE_RANK() on the other hand will not skip ranks if there is a tie. The first 2 rows get rank 1. Third row gets rank 2. SELECT Name, Salary, Gender, RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS [Rank], DENSE_RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS DenseRank FROM Employees RANK() and DENSE_RANK() functions with PARTITION BY clause : Notice when the partition changes from Female to Male Rank is reset to 1 SELECT Name, Salary, Gender, RANK() OVER (PARTITION BY Gender ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS [Rank], DENSE_RANK() OVER (PARTITION BY Gender ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS DenseRank FROM Employees Use case for RANK and DENSE_RANK functions : Both these functions can be used to find Nth highest salary. However, which function to use depends on what you want to do when there is a tie. Let me explain with an example. If there are 2 employees with the FIRST highest salary, there are 2 different business cases 1. If your business case is, not to produce any result for the SECOND highest salary, then use RANK function 2. If your business case is to return the next Salary after the tied rows as the SECOND highest Salary, then use DENSE_RANK function Since we have 2 Employees with the FIRST highest salary. Rank() function will not return any rows for the SECOND highest Salary. WITH Result AS ( SELECT Salary, RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS Salary_Rank FROM Employees ) SELECT TOP 1 Salary FROM Result WHERE Salary_Rank = 2 Though we have 2 Employees with the FIRST highest salary. Dense_Rank() function returns, the next Salary after the tied rows as the SECOND highest Salary WITH Result AS ( SELECT Salary, DENSE_RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS Salary_Rank FROM Employees ) SELECT TOP 1 Salary FROM Result WHERE Salary_Rank = 2 You can also use RANK and DENSE_RANK functions to find the Nth highest Salary among Male or Female employee groups. The following query finds the 3rd highest salary amount paid among the Female employees group WITH Result AS ( SELECT Salary, Gender, DENSE_RANK() OVER (PARTITION BY Gender ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS Salary_Rank FROM Employees ) SELECT TOP 1 Salary FROM Result WHERE Salary_Rank = 3 AND Gender = 'Female' Text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/10/rank-and-denserank-in-sql-server.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/10/rank-and-denserank-in-sql-server_1.html All SQL Server Text Articles http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/free-sql-server-video-tutorials-for.html All SQL Server Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/sql-server.html All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in English https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?view=1&sort=dd All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in Arabic https://www.youtube.com/c/KudvenkatArabic/playlists
Views: 86492 kudvenkat
PL/SQL: Mutating Triggers Part-1
 
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In this tutorial, you'll learn... PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 25656 radhikaravikumar
C Programming for Beginners 16 - Return Values in Functions
 
09:44
My Websites - http://www.codebind.com/ http://easyonlineconverter.com/index.html http://www.videotogifs.com/ My Blog - http://programmingknowledgeblog.blogspot.de/ My Facebook Page - https://www.facebook.com/Programmingknowledge Google+ - https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/106132176833207976203/+ProgrammingKnowledge Twitter - https://twitter.com/ProgrammingKnow Pinterest - https://de.pinterest.com/yogeshpatel18/programmingknowledge/ Text Case Converter - http://easyonlineconverter.com/converters/case_conveter.html Epoch Timestamp Converter - http://easyonlineconverter.com/converters/epoch_converter.html Decimal - Binary - Hexadecimal Converter - http://easyonlineconverter.com/converters/dec_to_hex_to_hex_converter.html 8-bit Checksum Calculator - http://easyonlineconverter.com/converters/checksum_converter.html Donate to ProgrammingKnowledge -- (https://www.paypal.com/de/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_flow&SESSION=AW9N5aRI7sCqjlIusdmku9rz2uvuULZ6K580uDxTK7ElJs2LHDiLq-TQv0a&dispatch=5885d80a13c0db1f8e263663d3faee8def8934b92a630e40b7fef61ab7e9fe63) C Programming/Procedures and functions Searches related to c++ function return value what is a function c++ C main function return value function must return a value C C macro function return value C function overloading return value C const function return value C function return value reference C function return multiple values
Views: 23305 ProgrammingKnowledge
Member Function with Arguments and return values | C ++ Tutorial | Mr. Kishore
 
09:56
C ++ Tutorial Videos | Mr. Kishore ** For Online Training Registration: https://goo.gl/r6kJbB ► Call: +91-8179191999 💡 Also Watch C Language Tutorials: https://goo.gl/qDhJ2r Core Java FAQ's: https://goo.gl/qGh5mA Core Java Tutorials: https://goo.gl/NbaEge Java Programming Tutorials by Mr.Hari krishna: https://goo.gl/HThq6H Advanced Java Programming Tutorials by Mr.Nataraj: https://goo.gl/1U2Qgy Subscribe to our channel and hit the bell 🔔🔔🔔 icon to get video updates. 💡 Visit Our Websites For Classroom Training: https://nareshit.in/cpp-training/ For Online Training: https://nareshit.com/c-online-training/ #JavaCollectionsFramework #Tutorials #Videos #corejava #Quiz #Clanguage -------------------------- 💡 About NareshIT: "Naresh IT is having 14+ years of experience in software training industry and the best Software Training Institute for online training, classroom training, weekend training, corporate training of Hadoop, Salesforce, AWS, DevOps, Spark, Data Science, Python, Tableau, RPA , Java, C#.NET, ASP.NET, Oracle, Testing Tools, Silver light, Linq, SQL Server, Selenium, Android, iPhone, C Language, C++, PHP and Digital Marketing in USA, Hyderabad, Chennai and Vijayawada, Bangalore India which provides online training across all the locations -------------------------- 💡 Our Online Training Features: 🎈 Training with Real-Time Experts 🎈 Industry Specific Scenario’s 🎈 Flexible Timings 🎈 Soft Copy of Material 🎈 Share Videos of each and every session. -------------------------- 💡 Please write back to us at 📧 [email protected]/ 📧 [email protected] or Call us at the USA: ☎+1404-232-9879 or India: ☎ +918179191999 -------------------------- 💡 Check The Below Links ► For Course Reg: https://goo.gl/r6kJbB ► Subscribe to Our Channel: https://goo.gl/q9ozyG ► Circle us on G+: https://plus.google.com/+NareshIT ► Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NareshIT ► Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/nareshitek ► Follow us on Linkedin: https://goo.gl/CRBZ5F ► Follow us on Instagram: https://goo.gl/3UXYK3
Views: 13037 Naresh i Technologies
Function In Oracle PL SQL
 
07:49
Function In Oracle 1)A stored / user defined function is a set of PLSQL statements you can call by name. 2)Stored functions are very similar to procedures. 3)function always return a value. 4)User functions can be used as part of a SQL expression. Parameters to Function : a)IN Parameters b)OUT Parameters c)IN OUT Parameters Create Function : CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION FIND_AGE ( EMP_ID IN VARCHAR2 ) RETURN NUMBER IS EMP_AGE NUMBER; SQLSTRING VARCHAR2(4000); BEGIN SQLSTRING:=’SELECT AGE FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE EMP_ID=’||EMP_ID; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE SQLSTRING INTO EMP_AGE; RETURN EMP_AGE; EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR(-20001,’Error in Find Age function – ‘||SQLCODE||’ -ERROR- ‘||SQLERRM); END; Call Function : SELECT FIND_AGE('1') FROM DUAL DROP FUNCTION : Syntax : DROP FUNCTION function_name; DROP FUNCTION FIND_AGE; #techquerypond https://techquerypond.com https://techquerypond.wordpress.com https://twitter.com/techquerypond
Views: 199 Tech Query Pond
Difference between rank dense rank and row number in SQL
 
04:43
row_number vs rank vs dense_rank in sql server dense_rank vs rank vs row_number sql server rank dense_rank row_number in sql server In this video we will discuss the similarities and difference between RANK, DENSE_RANK and ROW_NUMBER functions in SQL Server. Similarities between RANK, DENSE_RANK and ROW_NUMBER functions Returns an increasing integer value starting at 1 based on the ordering of rows imposed by the ORDER BY clause (if there are no ties) ORDER BY clause is required PARTITION BY clause is optional When the data is partitioned, the integer value is reset to 1 when the partition changes SQL Script to create the Employees table Create Table Employees ( Id int primary key, Name nvarchar(50), Gender nvarchar(10), Salary int ) Go Insert Into Employees Values (1, 'Mark', 'Male', 6000) Insert Into Employees Values (2, 'John', 'Male', 8000) Insert Into Employees Values (3, 'Pam', 'Female', 4000) Insert Into Employees Values (4, 'Sara', 'Female', 5000) Insert Into Employees Values (5, 'Todd', 'Male', 3000) Notice that no two employees in the table have the same salary. So all the 3 functions RANK, DENSE_RANK and ROW_NUMBER produce the same increasing integer value when ordered by Salary column. SELECT Name, Salary, Gender, ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS RowNumber, RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS [Rank], DENSE_RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS DenseRank FROM Employees You will only see the difference when there ties. Now let's include duplicate values for Salary column. To do this First delete existing data from the Employees table DELETE FROM Employees Insert new rows with duplicate valuse for Salary column Insert Into Employees Values (1, 'Mark', 'Male', 8000) Insert Into Employees Values (2, 'John', 'Male', 8000) Insert Into Employees Values (3, 'Pam', 'Female', 8000) Insert Into Employees Values (4, 'Sara', 'Female', 4000) Insert Into Employees Values (5, 'Todd', 'Male', 3500) Notice 3 employees have the same salary 8000. When you execute the following query you can clearly see the difference between RANK, DENSE_RANK and ROW_NUMBER functions. SELECT Name, Salary, Gender, ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS RowNumber, RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS [Rank], DENSE_RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS DenseRank FROM Employees Difference between RANK, DENSE_RANK and ROW_NUMBER functions ROW_NUMBER : Returns an increasing unique number for each row starting at 1, even if there are duplicates. RANK : Returns an increasing unique number for each row starting at 1. When there are duplicates, same rank is assigned to all the duplicate rows, but the next row after the duplicate rows will have the rank it would have been assigned if there had been no duplicates. So RANK function skips rankings if there are duplicates. DENSE_RANK : Returns an increasing unique number for each row starting at 1. When there are duplicates, same rank is assigned to all the duplicate rows but the DENSE_RANK function will not skip any ranks. This means the next row after the duplicate rows will have the next rank in the sequence. Text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/10/difference-between-rank-denserank-and.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2015/10/difference-between-rank-denserank-and_2.html All SQL Server Text Articles http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/free-sql-server-video-tutorials-for.html All SQL Server Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/sql-server.html All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in English https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?view=1&sort=dd All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in Arabic https://www.youtube.com/c/KudvenkatArabic/playlists
Views: 46585 kudvenkat
Member Function with class type return value (Object) | C ++ Tutorial | Mr. Kishore
 
14:45
C ++ Tutorial Videos | Mr. Kishore ** For Online Training Registration: https://goo.gl/r6kJbB ► Call: +91-8179191999 💡 Also Watch C Language Tutorials: https://goo.gl/qDhJ2r Core Java FAQ's: https://goo.gl/qGh5mA Core Java Tutorials: https://goo.gl/NbaEge Java Programming Tutorials by Mr.Hari krishna: https://goo.gl/HThq6H Advanced Java Programming Tutorials by Mr.Nataraj: https://goo.gl/1U2Qgy Subscribe to our channel and hit the bell 🔔🔔🔔 icon to get video updates. 💡 Visit Our Websites For Classroom Training: https://nareshit.in/cpp-training/ For Online Training: https://nareshit.com/c-online-training/ #JavaCollectionsFramework #Tutorials #Videos #corejava #Quiz #Clanguage -------------------------- 💡 About NareshIT: "Naresh IT is having 14+ years of experience in software training industry and the best Software Training Institute for online training, classroom training, weekend training, corporate training of Hadoop, Salesforce, AWS, DevOps, Spark, Data Science, Python, Tableau, RPA , Java, C#.NET, ASP.NET, Oracle, Testing Tools, Silver light, Linq, SQL Server, Selenium, Android, iPhone, C Language, C++, PHP and Digital Marketing in USA, Hyderabad, Chennai and Vijayawada, Bangalore India which provides online training across all the locations -------------------------- 💡 Our Online Training Features: 🎈 Training with Real-Time Experts 🎈 Industry Specific Scenario’s 🎈 Flexible Timings 🎈 Soft Copy of Material 🎈 Share Videos of each and every session. -------------------------- 💡 Please write back to us at 📧 [email protected]/ 📧 [email protected] or Call us at the USA: ☎+1404-232-9879 or India: ☎ +918179191999 -------------------------- 💡 Check The Below Links ► For Course Reg: https://goo.gl/r6kJbB ► Subscribe to Our Channel: https://goo.gl/q9ozyG ► Circle us on G+: https://plus.google.com/+NareshIT ► Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NareshIT ► Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/nareshitek ► Follow us on Linkedin: https://goo.gl/CRBZ5F ► Follow us on Instagram: https://goo.gl/3UXYK3
Views: 15310 Naresh i Technologies
Passing by Reference, Passing by Value
 
06:21
In this video, Steven explains the difference between passing a parameter by reference (which happens by default with IN parameters) and passing by value (which happens by default with OUT and IN OUT parameters). ====================================== Practically Perfect PL/SQL with Steven Feuerstein Copyright © 2015 Oracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Other names may be registered trademarks of their respective owners. Oracle disclaims any warranties or representations as to the accuracy or completeness of this recording, demonstration, and/or written materials (the “Materials”). The Materials are provided “as is” without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including without limitation warranties or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement.
Tutorial 42 - Creating Functions in PostgreSQL
 
12:41
Learn about Creating Functions in PostgreSQL
Views: 29728 Programming Guru
PL/SQL Tutorial 4: What is PL/SQL Function? any example?
 
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Learn about PL/SQL Functions by watching videos Function is a named and stored PL/SQL sub program. In my next video i will be explaining further concepts of PL/SQL. Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the 1st one to see my videos! For HCL interview question : https://youtu.be/Pf0lRerwF5U For Global Analytics interview questions : https://youtu.be/joRTF8ZhVwg For CTS interview questions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ISpHa... For accenture interview questions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lojdZA7pT4o For 3i infotech interview questions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aI7_45hSb5o For Infosys interview questions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l4hfRvcnyxk For top 30 PLSQL interview questions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pNiVsMHTk68 Please subscribe to my channel here for more videos on recent interview questions of MNC companies. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCofh... Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Oracle PLSQL group from http://techroundinterviewque.blogspot.in/ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Blog : http://techroundinterviewque.blogspot.in/ FB: https://www.facebook.com/jobupdates.necg/ Google+: https://plus.google.com/u/0/105097188725173992509 twitter: https://twitter.com/Oracle_pl_sql -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Thanks to my subscribers !!
Views: 2288 Oracle PL/SQL
Part 5   SQL query to find employees hired in last n months
 
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Link for all dot net and sql server video tutorial playlists http://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists Link for slides, code samples and text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2014/05/part-5-sql-query-to-find-employees.html This question is asked is many sql server interviews. If you have used DATEDIFF() sql server function then you already know the answer. -- Replace N with number of months Select * FROM Employees Where DATEDIFF(MONTH, HireDate, GETDATE()) Between 1 and N
Views: 191354 kudvenkat
Calling a stored procedure with output parameters   Part 7
 
20:13
Text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2012/10/calling-stored-procedure-with-output.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2013/09/part-7-calling-stored-procedure-with.html All ADO .NET Text Articles http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/free-adonet-video-tutorial.html All ADO .NET Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/adonet-slides.html All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in English https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?view=1&sort=dd All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in Arabic https://www.youtube.com/c/KudvenkatArabic/playlists In this video, we will learn about calling a stored procedure with output parameters from an asp.net web application.
Views: 200782 kudvenkat
Oracle sql Interview Question : How to change rows to column
 
09:18
This video tutorial talks about the frequently asked oracle sql interview question of changing rows to the column. Based on the given scenario, we are asked to change the presentation of data in a table with 3 rows and 2 column to 3 columns and 2 rows. Decode Function in oracle https://youtu.be/YUAjPMjqMws Pivot and unpivot in oracle https://youtu.be/6s0DI1YcWIM
Views: 20262 Kishan Mashru
Oracle CURRENT_TIMESTAMP Function
 
02:37
https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-date-functions/ The Oracle CURRENT_TIMESTAMP function will display the current date and time in the session time zone. Just like the CURRENT_DATE function, it uses the session time zone, which is where you logged in from. This could be different to the database time zone. The syntax of the CURRENT_TIMESTAMP function is: CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ( [precision] ) The return type of this function is TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE. The precision parameter is optional, and it lets you specify the number of fractional seconds to return. If this is omitted, it uses the default of 6. It’s different to the SYSTIMESTAMP function, because CURRENT_TIMESTAMP returns the session timezone, and SYSTIMESTAMP returns the database time zone. So, if I’m logging in from Melbourne, Australia, and the database is in London, England, then the CURRENT_TIMESTAMP will return a date and time that’s 10 hours ahead of SYSTIMESTAMP, and in a different time zone. It may be on the same day, or it could be a different day, depending on when I run the function. You can perform arithmetic on this function just like any other date value (e.g. CURRENT_TIMESTAMP - 7 for 7 days ago). However, it might be better to use interval data types so you can keep the original data type. For more information about the Oracle CURRENT_TIMESTAMP function, including all of the SQL shown in this video and the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-date-functions/
Views: 469 Database Star
PL/SQL Tutorial | COALESCE Function in Oracle Database
 
05:31
Learn fetching all non-null expression using oracle Coalesce function with example. If all expressions evaluate to null, then the COALESCE function will return null. Coalesce function in Oracle, What is coalesce function, When to use coalesce function, How to use coalesce function in oracle, How to fetch non-null values in oracle using coalesce, Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/in/aditya-kumar-roy-b3673368/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SpecializeAutomation/
PL/SQL: Ref Cursors
 
09:28
In this tutorial, you'll learn what is ref cursors. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 28619 radhikaravikumar
Oracle Database11g tutorials 13 || SQL substr function / SQL substring function
 
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link of SQL substr blog : http://www.rebellionrider.com/SQL-substr-function.htm SQL substr function SQL Substr function will return a sub string of a specified length from the source string beginning at a given position. Tool used in this tutorial is command prompt. This tutorial series is part of SQL expert exam certification training. if you are preparing for SQL certification you can use my tutorials. This SQL Tutorial is a part of free training. Copy Cloud referral link || Use this link to join copy cloud and get 20GB of free storage https://copy.com?r=j7eYO7 Contacts E-Mail [email protected] Twitter https://twitter.com/rebellionrider Instagram http://instagram.com/rebellionrider Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj Linkedin. http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ Thanks for linking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- As the name suggests SQL Substr function will return substring from a given source string. Let's see the Syntax Substr (source_string, start_pos, Substr_length) As we can see SQL substr function takes 3 parameters. First one is Source string from which you want to extract the segment. Second parameter is Starting position for sub string from the Source string. And the third parameter is Substr_length which is the length for the substring. First two parameters are mandatory to specify while third one is optional. So we can say. SQL Substr function will return a sub string of a specified length from the source string beginning at a given position. First parameter source string can be of any data type CHAR, VARCHAR2, NCHAR, NVARCHAR2, CLOB, or NCLOB whereas both start_pos, Substr_length parameters must be number data type. The returning result of SQL Substr function is of same data type of source string. Let's see an example of SQL Substr function. SELECT substr('www.RebellionRider.com',5,14) FROM dual; Here in this query url of my website www.RebellionRider.com is our source string with the total length of 22 characters, Now, I want to extract the name of my website that is, RebellionRider. So if you count the total length of the name of the website, it is 14. That's why I have specified 14 as my third parameter of SQL Substr function which is substr_length. Also the name of the website RebellionRider is starting from 5th position therefore I have specified 5 at second parameter of SQL substr function which is strt_pos or starting position. Execute it. Here is our result RebellionRider When starting position is larger than the length of source string. In this case SQL Substr function will return NULL as a result. Let's do an example. SELECT substr('www.RebellionRider.com',23,14) FROM dual; As you can see here I have specified 23 at starting position and the total length of our source string is 22 characters Let's execute And the result is Null. Second scenario When the Substr_length is greater than source string In this case the segment return is the substring from starting position to the end of the string. For example SELECT substr('www.RebellionRider.com',5,23) FROM dual; Our starting position is at 5 means at the first R of RebellionRider and length of substring is set to 23 which is greater than the length of source string that is 22. Execute. As you can see we get a substring from first R of RebellionRider till the end of the source String. Third scenario When you supply numeric or arithmetic expression or a DATE instead of character as Source string to SQL Substr function In this scenario If you have supplied a numeric string instead of character as source string, the oracle engine casts them as a character when they occur as parameter to SQL Substr function. And if you have supplied Arithmetic expression or a DATE then The Oracle engine first solves or evaluates the Arithmetic expression or the DATE Then casts them as a character. Means if you have arithmetic expression in your source string then oracle will first solve it and then change or say cast the value of its result into character. Let's see some example. SELECT substr(50000-7,2,4) FROM dual; Oracle first evaluates the arithmetic expression that is 50000-7 equals to 49993. And then oracle engine casts this result 49993 into a character string. Means 49993 will be a 5 characters string. Starting position of substring is 2, that means from the first 9 of 49993 We specified the length of substring is 4 so we must get 9993 as our result. Let's check execute
Views: 84373 Manish Sharma
PL/SQL tutorial 6: Bind Variable in PL/SQL By Manish Sharma RebellionRider.com
 
07:56
Watch and learn what are bind variables in PL/SQL how to declare or create them using Variable command, Initialize them using Execute (exec)command and different ways of displaying current values of a bind variable for example using AutoPrint parameter. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ►►►LINKS◄◄◄ Blog : http://bit.ly/bind-variable Previous Tutorial ► Constants in PL/SQL https://youtu.be/r1ypg7WH4GY ►User Variables :https://youtu.be/2MNmodawvnE ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Let's Get Free Uber Cab◄◄◄ Use Referral Code UberRebellionRider and get $20 free for your first ride. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Help Me In Getting A Job◄◄◄ ►Help Me In Getting A Good Job By Connecting With Me on My LinkedIn and Endorsing My Skills. All My Contact Info is Down Below. You Can Also Refer Me To Your Company Thanks ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the 1st one to see my videos! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ►►►Find me on Social Media◄◄◄ Follow What I am up to as it happens on https://twitter.com/rebellionrider https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj http://instagram.com/rebellionrider https://plus.google.com/+Rebellionrider http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ http://rebellionrider.tumblr.com/ http://www.pinterest.com/rebellionrider/ You can also Email me at for E-mail address please check About section Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ♥ I LOVE ALL MY VIEWERS AND SUBSCRIBERS
Views: 104569 Manish Sharma
Oracle DUMP Function
 
03:04
https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-dump/ The Oracle DUMP function tells you the data type of an expression you specify. Specifically, this function returns a string that explains what type of data it is, along with the length, and an internal representation. The syntax of the DUMP function is: DUMP ( expression [, return_format] [, start_position] [, length] ) The parameters of this function are: - expression: this is the expression that will be looked at and will have information displayed from this function. It can be a column or any other kind of expression. - return_format: this is the format of the data to return. - start_position: this is the starting position of the expression to return the internal representation for. Does not impact the data type shown. - length: this is the length from the start_position that the internal representation of the expression is shown for. The DUMP function returns a VARCHAR2 data type. For more information about the Oracle DUMP function, including all of the SQL shown in this video and the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-dump/
Views: 172 Database Star
PL/SQL tutorial 39: How To Create PL/SQL Functions in Oracle Database By Manish Sharma
 
06:15
PL/SQL Tutorial for beginners on RebellionRider.com How To Create PL/SQL Functions in Oracle Database ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ►►►LINKS◄◄◄ Blog : http://bit.ly/how-to-create-pl-sql-function Previous Tutorial ► Introduction To PL/SQL Function: https://youtu.be/6OJIrPx61mU ► PL/SQL Variables: https://youtu.be/2MNmodawvnE ► PL/SQL Constants: https://youtu.be/r1ypg7WH4GY ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Let's Get Free Uber Cab◄◄◄ Use Referral Code UberRebellionRider and get $20 free for your first ride. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the 1st one to see my videos! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ►►►Find me on Social Media◄◄◄ Follow What I am up to as it happens on https://twitter.com/rebellionrider https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj http://instagram.com/rebellionrider https://plus.google.com/+Rebellionrider http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ http://rebellionrider.tumblr.com/ http://www.pinterest.com/rebellionrider/ ___Facebook Official Page___ https://www.facebook.com/RebellionRider.official/ You can also Email me at for E-mail address please check About section Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ♥ I LOVE ALL MY VIEWERS AND SUBSCRIBERS
Views: 46709 Manish Sharma
Part 6   Transform rows into columns in sql server
 
08:53
Link for all dot net and sql server video tutorial playlists http://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists Link for slides, code samples and text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2014/06/part-6-transform-rows-into-columns-in.html This is another common sql server interview question. We will be using Countries table in this example. SQL to create the table Create Table Countries ( Country nvarchar(50), City nvarchar(50) ) GO Insert into Countries values ('USA','New York') Insert into Countries values ('USA','Houston') Insert into Countries values ('USA','Dallas') Insert into Countries values ('India','Hyderabad') Insert into Countries values ('India','Bangalore') Insert into Countries values ('India','New Delhi') Insert into Countries values ('UK','London') Insert into Countries values ('UK','Birmingham') Insert into Countries values ('UK','Manchester') Here is the interview question. Write a sql query to transpose rows to columns. Using PIVOT operator we can very easily transform rows to columns. Select Country, City1, City2, City3 From ( Select Country, City, 'City'+ cast(row_number() over(partition by Country order by Country) as varchar(10)) ColumnSequence from Countries ) Temp pivot ( max(City) for ColumnSequence in (City1, City2, City3) ) Piv
Views: 213811 kudvenkat
PL/SQL: Weak Vs Strong RefCursor && Normal cursor Vs RefCursor
 
10:26
In this tutorial, you'll learn Weak Vs Strong Ref Cursor && Normal cursor Vs Ref Cursor... PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 9564 radhikaravikumar
SQL Aggregation queries using Group By, Sum, Count and Having
 
10:01
From SQL Queries Joes 2 Pros (Vol2) ch4.1. Learn up to write aggregated queries.
Views: 190742 Joes2Pros SQL Trainings
PL-SQL tutorial 5 How to create Basic PL/SQL Function in Oracle
 
07:00
Hi friends watch this video and learn how to create a basic function in oracle and function always return a value using return keyword. #PLSQLtutorial #createBasicPL/SQLFunction Oracle database Unbeatable,Unbreakable Platform..
Views: 2535 Oracle World
Part 2   SQL query to get organization hierarchy
 
10:14
Link for all dot net and sql server video tutorial playlists http://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists Link for slides, code samples and text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2014/05/part-2-sql-query-to-get-organization.html To get the best out of this video, the following concepts need to be understood first. These are already discussed in SQL Server Tutorial. 1. Self-Join - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qnYSN_7qwgg 2. CTE - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXB5b-7HJHk 3. Recursive CTE - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGoV0wTMCg0 Here is the problem definition: 1. Employees table contains the following columns a) EmployeeId, b) EmployeeName c) ManagerId 2. If an EmployeeId is passed, the query should list down the entire organization hierarchy i.e who is the manager of the EmployeeId passed and who is managers manager and so on till full hierarchy is listed. For example, Scenario 1: If we pass David's EmployeeId to the query, then it should display the organization hierarchy starting from David. Scenario 2: If we pass Lara's EmployeeId to the query, then it should display the organization hierarchy starting from Lara. We will be Employees table for this demo. SQL to create and populate Employees table with test data Create table Employees ( EmployeeID int primary key identity, EmployeeName nvarchar(50), ManagerID int foreign key references Employees(EmployeeID) ) GO Insert into Employees values ('John', NULL) Insert into Employees values ('Mark', NULL) Insert into Employees values ('Steve', NULL) Insert into Employees values ('Tom', NULL) Insert into Employees values ('Lara', NULL) Insert into Employees values ('Simon', NULL) Insert into Employees values ('David', NULL) Insert into Employees values ('Ben', NULL) Insert into Employees values ('Stacy', NULL) Insert into Employees values ('Sam', NULL) GO Update Employees Set ManagerID = 8 Where EmployeeName IN ('Mark', 'Steve', 'Lara') Update Employees Set ManagerID = 2 Where EmployeeName IN ('Stacy', 'Simon') Update Employees Set ManagerID = 3 Where EmployeeName IN ('Tom') Update Employees Set ManagerID = 5 Where EmployeeName IN ('John', 'Sam') Update Employees Set ManagerID = 4 Where EmployeeName IN ('David') GO Here is the SQL that does the job Declare @ID int ; Set @ID = 7; WITH EmployeeCTE AS ( Select EmployeeId, EmployeeName, ManagerID From Employees Where EmployeeId = @ID UNION ALL Select Employees.EmployeeId , Employees.EmployeeName, Employees.ManagerID From Employees JOIN EmployeeCTE ON Employees.EmployeeId = EmployeeCTE.ManagerID ) Select E1.EmployeeName, ISNULL(E2.EmployeeName, 'No Boss') as ManagerName From EmployeeCTE E1 LEFT Join EmployeeCTE E2 ON E1.ManagerID = E2.EmployeeId
Views: 311602 kudvenkat
SQL Tutorial 12 Advanced Subqueries returning multiple columns
 
14:22
SQL Tutorial on Advanced Subqueries returning multiple columns Check out our website: http://www.telusko.com Follow Telusko on Twitter: https://twitter.com/navinreddy20 Follow on Facebook: Telusko : https://www.facebook.com/teluskolearnings Navin Reddy : https://www.facebook.com/navintelusko Follow Navin Reddy on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/navinreddy20 Subscribe to our other channel: Navin Reddy : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCxmkk8bMSOF-UBF43z-pdGQ?sub_confirmation=1 Telusko Hindi : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCitzw4ROeTVGRRLnCPws-cw?sub_confirmation=1
Views: 75170 Telusko
Java & MySQL - Check if a value already exists
 
12:03
Easy tutorial on how to check if a value already exists in the database.
Views: 31878 Mozoran
Sql query to select all names that start with a given letter without like operator
 
03:02
Text Article http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2017/01/sql-query-to-select-all-names-that.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2017/01/sql-query-to-select-all-names-that_31.html SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers text articles & slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2014/05/sql-server-interview-questions-and.html SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers playlist https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL6n9fhu94yhXcztdLO7i6mdyaegC8CJwR All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in English https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?view=1&sort=dd All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in Arabic https://www.youtube.com/c/KudvenkatArabic/playlists In this video we will discuss writing a SQL query to retrieve all student names that start with letter 'M' without using the LIKE operator. If the interviewer has not mentioned not to use LIKE operator, we would have written the query using the LIKE operator as shown below. SELECT * FROM Students WHERE Name LIKE 'M%' We can use any one of the following 3 SQL Server functions, to achieve exactly the same thing. CHARINDEX LEFT SUBSTRING The following 3 queries retrieve all student rows whose Name starts with letter 'M'. Notice none of the queries are using the LIKE operator. SELECT * FROM Students WHERE CHARINDEX('M',Name) = 1 SELECT * FROM Students WHERE LEFT(Name, 1) = 'M' SELECT * FROM Students WHERE SUBSTRING(Name, 1, 1) = 'M'
Views: 71472 kudvenkat
What is Parameterized Cursor in Oracle
 
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What is Parameterized Cursor in Oracle. In simple words a cursor with parameter is called parameterized cursor. PL/SQL allows developer to pass parameters into cursors. Same as like we can pass parameter into function and procedure. PL/SQL Parameterized cursor pass the parameters into a cursor and use them in to query. Cursor becomes more reusable using Cursor parameters. PL/SQL Parameterized cursor define only data type of parameter and not need to define it's length. In Parameterized cursor scope of the parameters are local within program only. Optionally, we can also give a default value for the parameter, which will take effect if no value is passed to the cursor. Key point 1. Scope of the parameters are locally 2. You can assign default value to a cursor parameter. 3. Cursor becomes more reusable with Cursor parameters. 4.PL/SQL Parameterized cursor define only data type of parameter and not need to define it's length. Please Leave your comments about this video and you can leave your question also for new videos. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Join our group on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/groups/146487615764170/ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Visit our blog http://oracletemple.blogspot.in/ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Useful plsql books link. http://goo.gl/XMy0tt ------------------------------------------------- Watch More... What is Parameterized Cursor in Oracle https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMKwHlVi6-A What is autonomous transaction in Oracle. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyvFajpfoWE What are Constraints available in Oracle. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WivhdLXQklQ What is Mutation Error and How to avoid mutation. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CbWNCyW18Bs 5 Effective way to delete Duplicate rows https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wtTtnc87Oc What is Difference between Delete and Truncate https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7b6wQ3Qumgg
Views: 7080 Ram Gupta
C Language tutorial||onlinetraining|| can a function return multiple values?
 
01:26
DURGASOFT is INDIA's No.1 Software Training Center offers online training on various technologies like JAVA, .NET , ANDROID,HADOOP,TESTING TOOLS ,ADF,INFORMATICA,TABLEAU,IPHONE,OBIEE,ANJULAR JS, SAP... courses from Hyderabad & Bangalore -India with Real Time Experts. Mail us your requirements to [email protected] so that our Supporting Team will arrange Demo Sessions. Ph:Call +91-8885252627,+91-7207212428,+91-7207212427,+91-8096969696. http://durgasoft.com http://durgasoftonlinetraining.com https://www.facebook.com/durgasoftware http://durgajobs.com https://www.facebook.com/durgajobsinfo......
0606 Functions That Returns Multiple Values
 
06:50
PHP is one of the leading technical web building education . Its very simple and easy to learn. Here we are showing 1 PHP Uses 2 PHP Installation 3 PHP Development 4 PHP using with PL/Sql 5 Pl/Sql Installation 6 Create and using Database using Oracle etc are shown in this video Thanks for watching
Views: 189 PHP 2015 Tutorial
PL/SQL: Coalesce Function
 
04:36
In this tutorial, you'll learn how to make use of coalesce function in oracle SQL. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 3456 radhikaravikumar